Bareilly is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Located on the Ramganga, it is the capital of Bareilly division and the geographical region of Rohilkhand. The city is 252 kilometres (157 mi) north of the state capital, Lucknow, and 250 kilometres (155 mi) east of the national capital, New Delhi. Bareilly is the fourth city in Uttar Pradesh with compressed natural gas (CNG) filling stations (after Lucknow, Kanpur and Agra). It is the seventh-largest metropolis in Uttar Pradesh and the 50th-largest in India.
The city, also known as Nath nagari (Land of Lord Shiva), Zari nagari and historically as Sanjashya (where the Buddha descended from Tushita to earth), is a centre for furniture manufacturing and trade in cotton, cereal and sugar. Its status grew with its inclusion on the "counter magnets" list of the National Capital Region (NCR), a list also including Hissar, Patiala, Kota and Gwalior. The city is also known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production centre for cane (bans) furniture, "Bans Bareilly" is not derived from the bans market; it was named for two princes: Bansaldev and Baraldev, sons of Jagat Singh Katehriya, who founded the city in 1537. Bareilly's 2011 population was 898,167.
Founding Bareilly was founded in 1537 by Basdeo, a Katehriya Rajput. The city was first mentioned by the historian Budayuni, who wrote that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of "Bareilly and Sambhal" in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district "being fixed by Todar Mal" were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. The foundation of the modern city of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly became the headquarters of the province of Budaun. The Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements to control the Katehriyas succeeded if the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans (who had become local potentates) began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages. Multi-coloured political map Regions of Uttar Pradesh, including Rohilkhand (capital Bareilly) In 1623 two Afghan brothers from the Barech tribe (Shah Alam and Husain Khan) settled in the region, bringing other Pashtun settlers. With the immigration of Daud Khan, an Afghan slave originally from Roh, Afghanistan, the Afghan Rohillas rose to prominence. His adopted son, Ali Muhammad Khan, established his headquarters in the region and was named governor of Kateher by Aurangzeb; the region was known as "the land of the Ruhelas". After the fall of the Mughal Empire, many Pathans migrated from Rohilkhand. Bareilly (like other cities in Uttar Pradesh) experienced economic stagnation and poverty, leading to the migration of Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname